## HLTH 501: Vocabulary Explanations

1. A cohort (or generation) life table is a record of the actual observed mortality experience for a particular group.
Example:
2. A period (or current) life table describes mortality and longevity data for a hypothetical (or “synthetic”) cohort, with the data computed.
Example:
3. In survivor analysis, the time lapse from the beginning of observation to the time of a terminating event is considered a survival time.
Example:
4. A survivor is a subject that successfully lasted throughout a particular time period.
Example:
5. The Kaplan-Meier method is used to describe survival behavior for some specific event, and it is based on varying survival time intervals for the terminating event being analyzed.
Example:
6. Survival times are censored data if the subjects survive past the end of the study or if they are dropped from the study for reasons not related to the terminating event being studied.
Example:
7. An abridged life table is a life table in which the age intervals have been combined, so the age intervals are longer than one year.
Example:
8.
Example:
9.
Example:
10.
Example:
PART TWO In a MINIMUM of 250 words what statistics are being used in the news or current events that you feel are not being properly supported and why? You may use multiple examples to make your point.

## Specific Analysis for Model Construction- Using R software Statistics

The data are de- scribed in Section 1.2.2 (Example 1) of my book, “Nonparametric Models for Longitudinal Data: With Implementation in R,” Wu and Tian, 2018, Chapman

## Estimating a population mean lab

PromptYou are tasked with using StatCrunch and your unique IAT sample to estimate the population mean for your IAT-Score variable.
Question 1
Use StatCrunch and your unique IAT sample to estimate the mean IAT-Score for the population of IAT participants at the 80% confidence level (directions). Copy the contents of your StatCrunch output window and paste it into your response.
Identify the 80% confidence interval.
Interpret your confidence interval in context.
Can we use the StatCrunch output to find the margin of error (MOE)? If so, what is the MOE? If not, identify the missing information.
Question 2
Use StatCrunch and your unique IAT sample to estimate the mean IAT-Score for the population of IAT participants at the 95% confidence level (directions). Copy the contents of your StatCrunch output window and paste it into your response.
Identify the 95% confidence interval.
Interpret your confidence interval in context.
Can we use the StatCrunch output to find the margin of error (MOE)? If so, what is the MOE? If not, identify the missing information.
Question 3
Which of the two confidence intervals is more accurate? Briefly explain.
Which of the two confidence intervals is more precise? Briefly explain.

## Mathematics of Data Science (AkA: 9/10/2021)

There will be 6 sets of a-s-s-e-s-s-m-e-n-t and each of them will be 5~6 questions long. Please see the questions shown in the screenshot. I will send you all info after being hired, eg PPTs, student access etc. Please send a draft in 12hrs -1 day time, day 2, and day 3 as well. Will need to draft some questions to ask the teacher and revise base on feedback (Send bk ard in 1 day max)

## mod 3 week 3 case normal distrobutions

Problems need to include all required steps and answer(s) for full credit. All answers need to be reduced to lowest terms where possible. If the answer is in %, show two decimal places.
The average score of a statistics class was 71 with a standard deviation of 8.What is the z score of a student with a grade of 68? (2.5 pts)
What is the z score of a student with a grade of 80? (2.5 pts)

Using the same data in #1 answer the following:Approximately 68% (one standard deviation) of the scores are between ________ and _________ (2.5 pts)
Approximately 95% (two standard deviation) of the scores are between _________ and _________ (2.5 pts)

Most values of the standard normal distribution are between __________. (3 pts)-3 and 3
0 and 1
0 and 3
1 and 3

(a) If the standard deviation of a data set is 1.3, what is the variance? (2.5 pts)(b) If the variance is 36, what is the standard deviation? (2.5 pts)
Let X have a normal distribution with mean µ= 20 and standard deviation σ = 4. Determine the area in the normal curve for which:P (X > 28) (2.5 pts)
P (X > 12) (2.5 pts)
P (X > 24) (2.5 pts)

The IQ scores of students listed below are from a SAMPLE of MATH 300 class.
IQ Scores921101059612010090981109510299931191061039110197105What is the mean IQ score? Round to the nearest whole number. (2.5 pts)
Compute the IQ scores within plus/minus one standard deviation? Two answers. Round to the nearest whole numbers. (2.5 pts)
Compute the IQ scores within plus/minus two standard deviation? Two answers. (2.5 pts)

Let X have a normal distribution with µ= 10 and standard deviation σ= 2. Transform X to the standard normal form Z and match the following probability statements:a) P(X>14) 1) P(Z<-1)b) P(X<8) 2) P(-2 < Z < 2)c) P(6 < X 2)a) is matched to ___________ (2.5 pts)b) is matched to ___________ (2.5 pts)c) is matched to ___________ (2.5 pts)
Let X have a normal distribution with mean µ= 30 and standard deviation σ= 10. Calculate P(X>40). Round to two decimal places. (4 pts)
For a standard normal variable Z, compute P(Z<1.5). Round your answer to two decimal places. (3 pts)
A larger standard deviation of a normal distribution indicates that the distribution becomes (2.5 pts)
narrower and more peaked
flatted and wider
more skewed to the right
more skewed to the left

## Introduction to Empirical Economics

only the part B
it should be completed with R. Write down your answers and codes in a R Markdown file (.rmd) using the RStudio, then generate a PDF file. Upload the R Markdown file and the PDF le to Canvas.

## cell phones lan

Once again, here is the research question for this lab.
Based on a recent study, roughly 80% of college students in the U.S. own a smartphone. Is the proportion of smartphone owners lower at this university?
Respond to each of the following in your initial post.
State your hypotheses in symbolic form and in words. (The following should be clear in your answer: the population of interest and the meaning of the proportion p in terms of the variable Cell.)
StatCrunch uses a normal model to estimate the P-value probability. Verify that normality conditions are met.
Use StatCrunch to conduct the hypothesis test. (directions)Copy and paste the results (the StatCrunch output window) into the textbox.
Give your P-value and interpret its meaning as a conditional probability.
State a conclusion that answers the research question. Use a significance level of 5%. (Be sure to state your conclusion in context. This means you should include the P-value, and reference the population and the variable Cell in your conclusion.)
We cannot know whether a Type 1 or Type 2 error actually occurs in a hypothesis test. But, based on the results of our hypothesis test, we should be aware of which type of error is possible and what that error means in the context of our test.
For the hypothesis test you conducted above, which type of error is possible, Type 1 or Type 2? Briefly explain why.
In the context of your hypothesis test, describe a potential consequence of this type of error.

## cell phones lan

Once again, here is the research question for this lab.
Based on a recent study, roughly 80% of college students in the U.S. own a smartphone. Is the proportion of smartphone owners lower at this university?
Respond to each of the following in your initial post.
State your hypotheses in symbolic form and in words. (The following should be clear in your answer: the population of interest and the meaning of the proportion p in terms of the variable Cell.)
StatCrunch uses a normal model to estimate the P-value probability. Verify that normality conditions are met.
Use StatCrunch to conduct the hypothesis test. (directions)Copy and paste the results (the StatCrunch output window) into the textbox.
Give your P-value and interpret its meaning as a conditional probability.
State a conclusion that answers the research question. Use a significance level of 5%. (Be sure to state your conclusion in context. This means you should include the P-value, and reference the population and the variable Cell in your conclusion.)
We cannot know whether a Type 1 or Type 2 error actually occurs in a hypothesis test. But, based on the results of our hypothesis test, we should be aware of which type of error is possible and what that error means in the context of our test.
For the hypothesis test you conducted above, which type of error is possible, Type 1 or Type 2? Briefly explain why.
In the context of your hypothesis test, describe a potential consequence of this type of error.

## Week 2 case 2

Problems need to include all required steps and answer(s) for full credit. All answers need to be reduced to lowest terms where possible. If the answer is in %, show two decimal places.
Below are excel functions, which you can use to solve for measures of central tendency and variability. You can use the formulas too; but, they will be time consuming.
EXCEL FUNCTIONS
Measures of Central Tendency
Suppose data are in cells A1 to A10
Mean =AVERAGE(A1:A10)
Median =MEDIAN(A1:A10)
Mode =MODE(A1:A10)
Measures of Variability
Suppose data are in cells A1 to A10
Range =MAX(A1:A10)-MIN(A1:A10)
IQR =QUARTILE.EXC(A1:A10,3)-QUARTILE.EXC(A1:A10,1)
Population Variance σ2 =VAR.P(A1:A10)
Sample Variance s2 =VAR(A1:A10) or VAR.S(A1:A10)
Population Standard Deviation σ =STDEV.P(A1:A10)
Sample Standard Deviation s =STDEV(A1:A10) or STDEV.S(A1:A10)
Joe and Mary would like to buy their first home in a new city. Below is the list of prices of 20 homes for sale.
Prices in US Dollars140190265115270240250180160200240280175200310195320105385265
Find the mean, median, mode. (2 pts)
Which measure of central tendency best represent the data? Why? (2 pts)
Are there any outliers? If so, name the outlier. (2 pts)

The ages of students in a statistics class are listed below.
Age of students2220252327301831194545193627192633403524
Create a stem plot (2 pts)
What is the mean age of the student? (2 pts)

Jenny likes to have at least a 70% average to pass her statistics class. Her previous four test scores are 52%, 66%, 76% and 71%. What is the minimum score Heidi needs on the final exam to pass the class? (4 pts)
Consider the following data and corresponding weights.
Xi Weight (wi )3.152.332.8244
Compute the weighted mean. (2 pts)
Compute the mean without weighting. (2 pts)

The chart below represents the amount of rainfall for 15 days in northern Ohio in July.
Rainfall in inches 4.14.23.53.94.24.43.83.73.53.44.33.24.34.5 4
Complete the frequency table. (2 pts)
Rainfall in inchesFrequencyLess than 3.03.0-3.43.5-3.94.0-4.5
Find the mean of the raw data. (2 pts)
Find the median of the raw data. (2 pts)
Find the mode of the raw data. (2 pts)

Consider a sample with data values of 27, 25, 20, 15, 30, 34, 28 and 25.What is the minimum? (2 pts)
What is the first quartile? (2 pts)
What is the median? (2 pts)
What is the third quartile? (2 pts)
What is the maximum? (2 pts)

Create the box plot for the data in #6. Label the five points on the box. (4 pts)
Using the data in #6.What is the range? (2 pts)
What is the interquartile range (IQR)? (2 pts)

The histogram of a quantitative variable is positively skewed. The mean of the variable is 35.Which one of the following is a more likely value of the median? (2 pts)553035