Reading: Phrenology and Localization

Question 1: (Multiple choice)
Seung reading: Complete the following statement: Localizing particular functions with discrete regions of the cortex was first discovered due to evidence provided from…
A. Studying the shape and size of the surface of the scull
B. Observing patients with brain damage
C. Surgically removing parts of the cortex
D. Observing the neuroanatomy of people with extreme dispositions at autopsy
Question 2: (Multiple choice)
Which of the following is used to help determine the function of a brain area?
A. Electrically stimulating brain region and seeing what happens
B. Analyzing the behavioral changes that occur when part of the brain is damaged
C. Studying brain scans of an area
D. All of the above
Question 3: (Multiple choice)
Martini Reading: Specific functions that are predominantly attributed to either the left or the right hemispheres of the brain (but not both) are considered lateralized. Although certain specialized functions display hemispheric lateralization, that is, those functions are associated with only the right or left hemisphere, that does not mean the two hemispheres act independently from each other. What structure is largely responsible for connecting the two sides and therefor allowing communication between the right and left hemispheres?
A. Corpus callosum
B. Prefrontal cortex
C. Thalamus
D. Brain stem
Question 4: (Match numeric and alphabetic items)
Match the region of the brain with the function.
1. Broca’s area:
2. Wernicke’s Area:
3. Left Hemisphere:
a. Vocal ability
b. Speech comprehension
c. Hearing
d. motor ability (movement)
e. Vision
f. Pain
g. Temperature sensation
h. General language ability
Question 5 (Multiple choice)
Seung described a patient, “Tan” with an unusual speech deficit. This patient provided evidence that helped to illustrate that the ability of speech, as it relates to the brain, is organized by:
A. Hemispheric lateralization
B. Cortical localization
C. Both hemispheric lateralization and cortical localization.
D. Phrenology
Question 6 (True or False)
Select which choice (True or False) best describes the following statement: There is no correlation between overall brain size and intelligence.
Question 7 (Multiple choice)
The largest part of the brain, called the cerebrum, is covered with a thick convoluted layer called the:
A. Cerebral cortex
B. Corpus callosum
C. Occipital lobe
D. The ventricles
Question 8: (Select)
Regions of the cortex used for processing sensory information, motor function, or even areas important for thought and decision making are largely physically connected to other nearby regions of the cortex and other brain regions via a substance that contains mostly fibers or axons called, (A: White matter B: Grey matter C: Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)). One reason these connections are important is that they allow for (A: The brain to be held together. B: Relaying information or communication. C: Brain growth.)
Question 9: (Writing)
As a society, we have long been fascinated by the brains of those considered to be geniuses. Based on the reading, and with your own words, briefly describe using complete sentences what made Albert Einstein’s brain different from the typical brain? Was his intellect related to the size of his brain? The size of particular brain parts? Perhaps his brain was “wired” differently? Or, perhaps his brain wasn’t really all that different and something else can provide the reasoning behind his intellect? In addition to your description, please include an explanation to support your reasoning drawn from the reading.