5103SPOSCI Biomechanical Principles

5103SPOSCI Biomechanical Principles

Referral and Deferral Coursework Task

June-July 2022



This coursework offers a referral and deferral assessment to the forces and motion laboratory reports.


The referral//deferral course is not to repeat the lab report. Read details of the task below.


The coursework task is to write one essay (1000 words, excluding reference list, tables & figures) as follows:


Compare and contrast the biomechanical methods used by at least 2 recently published research papers in applied sports science/biomechanics journals (e.g. the J. Sports Science, J. Applied Biomechanics, or similar). These studies must have used force analysis or motion analysis to investigate performance enhancement or injury prevention. Your essay should describe, compare and contrast the biomechanical methods used in data collection, data processing, and identification of key variables and findings. The discussion should explore whether / how the technical approach impacted the findings of each paper, and whether this might explain any differences in the findings. Additional references can be used to strengthen your case, but this should not exceed 4 additional studies.


Good quality work will not just describe / summarise the included studies, but will compare, contrast and critique the methods and data of the included studies.

You selection of relevant biomechanical studies, which make measurements of force and motion is vital for your essay (see below).


The coursework should be organised as:

Introduction and background, in which you describe and compare the questions/problems being addressed in the chosen papers (max 1 page).

Methods of the two papers, in which you summarise the methods used in the measurement of force and/or motion to answer the research question, and similarities or differences between studies should be identified (max 1 page). Although the research design is of interest, the emphasis should be on the biomechanical measurement of force and motion. Any differences in methods to collect similar outcome measures should be detailed. As should differences in the chosen outcome measures.

Findings should be summarised quantitatively, and similarities or differences should be identified. Any data reproduced in figures or tables must be appropriately referenced (max 1 page).

Discussion should highlight the major interpretations and conclusions of each research paper and offer explanations for any differences in their findings. These differences should be explained by considering how these might be caused by the methodologies adopted (max 2 pages).

A full reference list should be included, but is not included in the page count. Key figures/tables from the papers can be included at the end of the essay with your own caption describing the figure (not the caption from the papers), and appropriately referred to in your text. They do not count for page count.





The papers you choice to report will directly impact your ability to describe, compare and contrast the biomechanical methods used. You should search for articles with similar research questions, outcome measures, methods or findings. Two articles with no similarity will make it difficult to compare and contrast them. Most importantly, the articles you discuss must make biomechanical measurements of force and/or motion.


If you have any doubts, you may contact the module leader for guidance.



Formatting should be according to School guidelines and detailed in the Programme Handbook.



This is an independent assessment and must be completed as such. Although you will be describing and summarising the work of previous studies you must not plagiarise this work. You should write these summaries in your own words, using you own knowledge. Turnitin will be used to check work for similarities to other students’ work and previously published sources. See programme handbook for further guidance on academic misconduct.



Submit the coursework to Turnitin on the module Canvas site, before the deadline at 23:59 on Friday 1st July 2022.



Individual support can be gained by emailing the module leader (t.d.obrien@ljmu.ac.uk) with your queries or by booking a meeting on Seemytutor.